The APA (American Psychological Association) referencing style is the most common style in use at GCC. APA covers all subject areas, and is widely used by many academic journals, textbooks, and universities around the world. It is currently in its 7th edition and is usually referred to as APA 7th.


Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th edition by American Psychological Association



Referencing is an essential part of academic communication, serving these main purposes:

  • To support claims, arguments, and assertions in your work
  • To show evidence of reading and research
  • To give credit to the authors of any material that you have referred to in your work
  • To help readers find the sources of information you have cited
  • To ensure academic integrity and avoid accusations of plagiarism

Ground-breaking (1)


Ground-breaking (2)

  • APA Style Official Blog: The official companion blog to APA, providing extensive support and clarification for all aspects of the APA 7th style
  • RefQuest video game: want to learn APA 7th referencing while playing a throwback 8-bit video game? Well RefQuest is for you! From the University of Western Sydney.


Ground-breaking (3)

Although there are numerous online tools for managing citations, it's important to note that automatic citation tools are not infallible. It is still necessary to have a grasp of the citation style rules to identify and correct any mistakes.

  • EndNote: is a desktop and browser-based program that facilitates the organization, annotation, and accessibility of academic research[ User Guide ]
  • EndNoteWeb: is the web-based version of the popular citation management software[ User Guide ]
  • Mendeley: is a desktop and web-based application that helps users manage, organize, and access academic research papers. guide-book[ User Guide ]
  • Zotero: is a desktop and web-based tool that assists users in managing and organizing academic research[ User Guide ]
  • ZoteroBib: is an online citation generator developed by Zotero. It helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any[ User Guide ]
  • Papersapp: is a software application designed for desktop and browser use, enabling users to manage, annotate, and access academic research[ User Guide ]
  • Citation Builder: An online citation generator created by NC State University Libraries.
  • Cite This For Me: An online citation tool for creating citations in the APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles.
  • Reference Machine: An online citation generator created by PolyU ELC.
  • Automated citator for APA 7th (double check your citations for accuracy)

  • If you are interested in accessing the video tutorial guide, kindly visit our subject guides and navigate to the APA Guides & Tools page for more detailed information.
  • Please feel free to contact us if you need more information about these tools. The library can provide relevant guides or workshops.
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    Training and support

    • Welcome to Contact Us for assistance with APA or other referencing questions.

    Reference format

    Author or editor Date Title Sources
    Publisher information DOI or URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    Editor, C. C. [username].


    (2020, January).

    (2020, February 16).
      Title of article.
      Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.

      Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.

      Title of Periodical.

    McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51.

    Parenthetical citation: (McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

    Narrative citation: McCauley and Christiansen (2019)

    Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39.

    Parenthetical citation: (Ahmann et al., 2018)

    Narrative citation: Ahmann et al. (2018)

    Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

    Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicated calibration of love, especially in adoption. Chicago Tribune.

    Parenthetical citation: (Anderson, 2018; Goldman, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Anderson (2018) and Goldman (2018)

    • Do not include the database name or URL.

    De Vries, R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & the members of Midwifery Science Work Group. (2013). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128.

    Parenthetical citation: (De Vries et al., 2013)

    Narrative citation: De Vries et al. (2013)

    • Write the name of the group author as shown on the source. This byline included the wording "the members of."

    Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffetti, M., Slater, M., & Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article e0209899.

    Parenthetical citation: (Burin et al., 2019)

    Narrative citation: Burin et al. (2019)

    • Capitalize the word ''Article" before the article number or eLocator.

    Huestegge, S. M., Raettig, T., & Huestegge, L. (2019). Are face-incongruent voices harder to process? Effects of face-voice gender incongruency on basic cognitive information processing. Experimental Psychology. Advance online publication.

    Parenthetical citation: (Huestegge et al., 2019)

    Narrative citation: Huestegge et al. (2019)

    Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34.

    Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker.

    Weir, K. (2017, January). Forgiveness can improve mental and physical health. Monitor on Psychology, 48(1), 30.

    Parenthetical citation: (Bergeson, 2019; Bustillos, 2013; Weir, 2017)

    Narrative citation: Bergeson (2019), Bustillos (2013), and Weir (2017)

    Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post.

    Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.

    Parenthetical citation: (Guarino, 2017; Hess, 2019)

    Narrative citation: Guarino (2017) and Hess (2019)

    Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

    Parenthetical citation: (Klymkowsky, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Klymkowsky (2018)

    baron dc. (2020, January 7). This is completely unethical and should be banned. Fake profiles filling up dating sites are nothing more than a scam [Comment on the article "Dating apps need women. Advertisers need diversity. AI companies offer a solution: Fake people"]. The Washington Post.

    Parenthetical citation: (baron dc, 2020)

    Narrative citation: baron dc (2020)

    • Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name or a username).
    • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment; then write "Comment on the article" and the title of the article on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets).
    • Link to the comment itself if possible
    • Because the comment URL was long and complex, it has been shortened. Either the long or the short form of the URL is acceptable.

    Reference format

    Author or editor Date Title Sources
    Publisher information DOI or URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    Editor, E. E. (Ed.).

    Editor E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).
    (2020). Title of book.

    Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).

    Title of book [Audiobook].

    Title of book (E. E. Editor, Ed.).

    Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).
      Publisher Name.

      First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.

    Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Brown (2018)

    Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

    Parenthetical citation: (Burgess, 2019)

    Narrative citation: Burgess (2019)

    Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio.

    Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.

    Parenthetical citation: (Cain, 2012; Christian & Griffiths, 2016)

    Narrative citation: Cain (2012) and Christian and Griffiths (2016)

    • It is not necessary to note when you used an audio book versus a book or an ebook when the content is the same, even if the format is different. However, do note that the work is an audiobook in the title element when the content is different (e.g., abridged), if you want to note something special about the audiobook (e.g., the impact of the narration on the listener), or if you quote from the audiobook.
    • If the audiobook was released in a different year from the text version of the book, treat the work as republished.

    Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton.

    Parenthetical citation: (Schmid, 2017)

    Narrative citation: Schmid (2017)

    • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons.

    Hacker Hughes, J. (Ed.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.

    Parenthetical citation: (Hacker Hughes, 2017)

    Narrative citation: Hacker Hughes (2017)

    Pridham, K. F., Limbo, R., & Schroeder, M. (Eds.). (2018). Guided participation in pediatric nursing practice: Relationship-based teaching and learning with parents, children, and adolescents. Springer Publishing Company.

    Parenthetical citation: (Pridham et al., 2018)

    Narrative citation: Pridham et al. (2018)

    Piaget, J., & lnhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.; 2nd ed.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1966)

    Parenthetical citation: (Piaget & lnhelder, 1966/1969)

    Narrative citation: Piaget and Jnhelder (1966/1969)

    Madigan, S. (2019). Narrative therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

    Parenthetical citation: (Madigan, 2019)

    Narrative citation: Madigan (2019)

    • For a series of conceptually related titles, the series title is not included in the reference (this book is part of the Theories of Psychotherapy Series)

    King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

    The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

    The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published 1962)

    Parenthetical citation: (King James Bible, 17 69/2017; The Our'an, 2004; The Torah, 1962/2015)

    Narrative citation: King James Bible (1769/2017), The Our'an (2004), and The Torah (1962/2015)

    • Additional examples of religious texts are available on the APA Style website.

    Reference format

    Chapter author Date Chapter title Sources
    Editor book information DOI or URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Name of Group. (2020). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor(Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name.

    In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.),Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher Name. https://xxxxx

    Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. lwamasa & P. A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (pp. 287–314). American Psychological Association. 10.1037/0000119-012

    Parenthetical citation: (Balsam et al., 2019)

    Narrative citation: Balsam et al. (2019)

    Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

    Parenthetical citation: (Weinstock et al., 2003)

    Narrative citation: Weinstock et al. (2003)

    Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American Holocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press.

    Parenthetical citation: (Tafoya & Del Vecchio, 2005)

    Narrative citation: Tafoya and Del Vecchio (2005)

    Sacchett, C., & Humphreys, G. W. (2004). Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts. In D. A. Balota & E. J. Marsh (Eds.), Cognitive psychology: Key readings in cognition (pp. 100-108). Psychology Press. (Reprinted from "Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts," 1992, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 9[1], 73-86,

    Parenthetical citation: (Sacchett & Humphreys, 1992/2004)

    Narrative citation: Sacchett and Humphreys (1992/2004)

  • Provide information for the reprinted version you used, then provide in parentheses the original article title (even if the title did not change), year, and source information.
    • Place the original journal article issue number in square brackets rather than parentheses to avoid nested parentheses.

    Goldin-Meadow, S. (201S). Gesture and cognitive development. In L. S. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 2. Cognitive processes (7th ed., pp. 339-380). John Wiley & Sons. 1002/9781118963418.childpsy209

    Parenthetical citation: (Goldin-Meadow, 2015)

    Narrative citation: Goldin-Meadow (2015)

    • If the volume has both series editors (or editors-in-chief) and volume editors, only the volume editors appear in the reference.
    • The volume in this example has its own title.

    Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. sum2019/entries/behaviorism/

    Parenthetical citation: (Graham, 2019)

    Narrative citation: Graham (2019)

    • This example is structured similarly to the reference for a chapter in an edited book because the entry has an individual author, the encyclopedia has an editor, and the whole work has a publisher.
    • Because this version of the entry is archived, a retrieval date is not needed.

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher information DOI or URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    (2020, May 2).
    Title of report.

    Title of report (Report No. 123).

    Title of white literature [Description].
    Publisher Name.


    Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012). Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations. inquiries/completed/australia-new-zealand/report/trans-tasman.pdf

    Canada Council for the Arts. (2013). What we heard: Summary of key findings: 2013 Canada Council's Inter-Arts Office consultation.

    National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of HeaIth.

    Parenthetical citation: (Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission, 2012; Canada Council for the Arts, 2013; National Cancer Institute, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Australian Government Productivity Commission and New Zealand Productivity Commission (2012), Canada Council for the Arts (2013), and National Cancer Institute (2018)

    • The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher.
    • If multiple agencies authored a report together, join the names with an ampersand, using commas to separate the names of three or more agencies.

    Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic CounciI.

    Segaert, A., & Bauer, A. (2015). The extent and nature of veteran homelessness in Canada. Employment and Social Development Canada.

    Parenthetical citation: (Fried & Polyakova, 2018; Segaert & Bauer, 2015)

    Narrative citation: Fried and Polyakova (2018) and Segaert and Bauer (2015)

    British Cardiovascular Society Working Group. (2016). British Cardiovascular Society Working Group report: Out-of-hours cardiovascular care: Management of cardiac emergencies and hospital in-patients. British Cardiovascular Society.

    Parenthetical citation: (British Cardiovascular Society Working Group, 2016)

    Narrative citation: British Cardiovascular Society Working Group (2016)

    • Capitalize the name of the task force or working group wherever it appears in the reference because it is a proper noun.

    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017.

    Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017)

    Narrative citation: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017)

    American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. https://www.

    American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.

    American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). https://

    Parenthetical citation: (American Counseling Association, 2014; American Nurses Association, 2015; American Psychological Association, 2017)

    Narrative citation: American Counseling Association (2014), American Nurses Association (2015), and American Psychological Association (2017)

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, February 14). FDA authorizes first interoperable insulin pump intended to allow patients to customize treatment through their individual diabetes management devices [Press release]. NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm631412.htm

    Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019)

    Narrative citation: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019)

    Reference format

    Use the template shown next to construct references for conference sessions and presentations.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Conference information DOI or URL
    Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B. (2020, September 18-20).

    (2020, October 30-November 1).
    Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location.


    Use the template shown next to construct references for symposium contributions.

    Author Date Contribution Title Sources
    Conference information DOI or URL
    Contributor, A. A., & Contributor, B. B. (2020, September 18-20).

    (2020, October 30-November 1).
    Title of contribution. In C.C. Chairperson (Chair), Title of syposium [Symposium]. Conference Name, Location.


    Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody's got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

    Parenthetical citation: (Fistek et al., 2017)

    Narrative citation: Fistek et al. (2017)

    Maddox, S., Hurling, J., Stewart, E., & Edwards, A. (2016, March 30-April 2). If mama ain't happy, nobody's happy: The effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 62nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States.

    Parenthetical citation: (Maddox et al., 2016)

    Narrative citation: Maddox et al. (2016)

    Reference format

    Use the template shown next to construct references for unpublished dissertations and theses.

    Author Date Title Source
    Author, A. A. (2020). Title of Dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].

    Title of thesis. [Unpublished master's thesis].

    Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

    Use the template shown next to construct references for published dissertations and theses.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Database or archive name URL
    Author, A. A. (2020). Title of Dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

    Title of thesis. [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

    Database name.

    Archive Name.

    Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProOuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

    Parenthetical citation: (Hollander, 2017)

    Narrative citation: Hollander (2017)

    Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master's thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive.

    Parenthetical citation: (Hutcheson, 2012)

    Narrative citation: Hutcheson (2012)

    Reference format

    Media type Include as the author
    Film Director
    TV series Exective producer(s)
    TV series episode Writer and director of episode
    Podcast Host or executive producer
    Podcast episode Host of episode
    Webinar Instuctor
    Classical music album or song Composer
    Modern music album or song Recording artist
    Artwork Artist
    Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
    Photograph Photographer

    Use the template shown next to construct references for audiovisual media that stand alone.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher URL
    Director D. D. (Director).

    Producer P. P. (Execuive producer).

    Host H. H. (Host).

    Artist A. A.

    Uploader U. U.



    (2019, July 21).
    Title of work. [Description] Production Company. Label.

    Museum Name, Museum Location.

    Department Name, University Name.

    Use the template shown next to construct references for audiovisual media that are part of a greater whole.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher URL
    Writer W. W. (Writer), & Director D. D. (Director).

    Host H. H. (Host).

    Producer P. P. (Producer).

    Composer C. C.

    Artist A. A.

    (2020, March 26).
    Title of episode (Season No., Episode no.)[Description].

    Title of Song [Description].
    In P.P. Producer (Executive Producer) Title of TV series. Production Company.

    In Title of Podcast. Production Company.

    On Title of Album. Labe

    Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

    Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association.

    Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

    Parenthetical citation: (Forman, 1975; Fosha & Levenson, 2017; Jackson, 2001)

    Narrative citation: Forman (1975), Fosha and Levenson (2017), and Jackson (2001)

    • The director should be credited as the author of a film. However, if the director is unknown (as with the Fosha & Levenson example), someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid readers in retrieving the work; the description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible.
    • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g., in a theater, on DVD, streaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included-within the square brackets, following the word "Film" and a semicolon-when you need to specify the version used (e.g., when the film's DVD release includes a commentary or special feature that you used, or when the film is a limited-release educational video or DVD). Adjust this wording as needed.

    Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

    Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

    Parenthetical citation: (Barris, 2017; Oakley et al., 1995)

    Narrative citation: Barris (2017) and Oakley et al. (1995)

    • Include writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. "Writer" and "Director" are shown here, but "Executive Director" or other role descriptions might also be used.
    • Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.

    Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences.

    TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube.

    Parenthetical citation: (Giertz, 2018; TED, 2012)

    Narrative citation: Giertz (2018) and TED (2012)

  • When the TED Talk comes from TED's website (as with the Giertz example), use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.
  • When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative if desired: "Brown discussed shame as a human experience (TED, 2012)."
  • Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

    Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

    University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

    Parenthetical citation: (Cutts, 2017; Fogarty, 2016; University of Oxford, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Cutts (2017), Fogarty (2016), and University of Oxford (2018)

    • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work. Note the contributions of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired.

    Ho, K. W. H., Wong, K. C., Chen, K. K. T., Ip, H. C. S., Ng, H. S. S., Yau, H. F. P., & Yung, W. (2023, September 4). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. School of Social Work, Gratia Christian College.

    Housand, B. (2016). Game on! Integrating games and simulations in the classroom [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

    Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.

    Parenthetical citation:(Ho et al., 2020; Housand, 2016; Mack & Spake, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Ho et al. (2019), Housand (2016), and Mack and Spake (2018)

    • If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Canvas, Blackboard), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Social media site name URL
    Twitter and Instagram:
    Author, A. A.[@username].

    Name of Group[@username].

    Facebook and others:
    Author, A. A.

    Name of Group.

    Name of Group [Username].


    (2019, August 8).
    Content of the post up to the first 20 words.

    Content of the post up to the first 20 words
    [Description of audiovisuals].

    [Description of audiovisuals].
    Site Name. https://xxxxx

    Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://xxxxx

    APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from

    Parenthetical citation: (APA Style, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: APA Style (n.d.)

    • Provide a retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.
    • A Twitter profile has several tabs ("Tweets" is the default). To create a reference to one of the other tabs ( e.g., "Lists" or "Moments"), substitute that tab name for "Tweets" in the reference.
    • Include the notation "Twitter profile" in square brackets.

    Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update). Facebook.

    National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 29). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [lnfographic]. Facebook.

    News From Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim. ag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook. 10155508587605108/

    Parenthetical citation: (Gaiman, 2018; National Institute of Mental Health, 2018; News From Science, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Gaiman (2018), National Institute of Mental Health (2018), and News From Science (2018)

    • This format can be used for posts to other social media services, including Tumblr, Linkedln, and so forth.
    • If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.
    • Replicate emojis if possible.

    Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from nationalzoo

    Parenthetical citation: (Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute (n.d.)

    • Use the page title in the reference (e.g., "Timeline," "Home," "Photos," "About").
    • Include the notation "Facebook page" in square brackets.
    • This format can be used or adapted for references to other platform or profile pages, including YouTube, Instagram, Tumblr, Linkedln, and so forth.

    Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. lnstagram.

    Parenthetical citation: (Zeitz MOCAA, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Zeitz MOCAA (2018)

    The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. lnstagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from

    Parenthetical citation: (The New York Public Library, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: The New York Public Library (n.d.)

    • Use "n.d:' for the date; although each story within a highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated and may include stories from multiple dates.
    • Because a highlight can change at any time, include the retrieval date.
    • Because the URL was long and complex, it has been shortened. Either the long or the short form of the URL is acceptable.

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Website name URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    (2020, August).

    (2020, September 28).

    Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxx

    Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xxxxx

    Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age positive. CNN.

    Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.

    Parenthetical citation: (Avramova, 2019; Bologna, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Avramova (2019) and Bologna (2018)

    • Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, Huffrost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox).

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.

    World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

    Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018; World Health Organization, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) and World Health Organization (2018)

    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

    Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

    Parenthetical citation: (Martin Lillie, 2016)

    Narrative citation: Martin Lillie (2016)

    Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists.

    National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.

    Parenthetical citation: (Boddy et al., n.d.; National Nurses United, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: Boddy et al. (n.d.) and National Nurses United (n.d.)

    • In the Boddy et al. example, the authors are listed on the acknowledgments page of the site.
    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

    Worldometer. (n.d.). Current world population. Retrieved January 16, 2020, from

    Parenthetical citation: (Worldometer, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: Worldometer (n.d.)

    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.
    • Include a retrieval date because the contents of the page are designed to change over time and the page itself is not archived.


    This page is about citing sources when you write your paper in Chinese.

    There are no standardised Chinese citation styles. The key is to be consistent in the way you cite.

    We have provided a few examples of style guides on this page for your reference.

    We strongly recommend that you consult with your professor as to which style is acceptable for your assignments and papers.


    APA 7th 功課例子

    Conversations in ChatGPT are non-retrievable. However, where you might use the "personal communication" format for non-retrievable conversations or data, in this case, there is no person communicating. Instead you'll cite the algorithm.

  • Here is an example provided by the APA Style Blog:
  • In-text:

    When prompted with “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).


    OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

    To read more about citing ChatGPT in APA Style, please see:

  • How to Cite ChatGPT
  • In this post, APA Style Blog editors discuss situations where students and researchers might use ChatGPT or other AI to create text and to facilitate their research and how to cite it using APA Style.

  • APA Citation Guide: AI
  • This guide from Seneca Libraries can help you cite AI in your assignments.

    Online Tools for Assignment stationery

    There are many new online tools being developed every day. Knowing which tool to use when preparing your assignment can definitely help make the process of putting together an assignment easier. The types of tool we are going to cover include:

    Disclaimer: The Library do not subscribe to any of these tools. You are encouraged to evaluate the information on your own for validity and accuracy.

    AI-Based Literature Review Tools

  • Semantic Scholar

    A free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature.


    Elicit uses language models to help you automate research workflows, like parts of literature review.

  • Consensus

    Consensus is a search engine that uses AI to find insights in research papers

  • ________________________________________________________________________


    Online References research

    Online references are helpful tools for you to gain a board overview of a topic.

  • Wikipedia

    A free online encyclopedia created and maintained by a community of volunteer editors.

  • Open Knowledge Maps

    A free online tool that can generate a knowledge map of a research topic.




    Image Sources paste

    We use images in our assignment, be it presentations, reports or even posters.

  • Google Images

    An image search service from Google.

  • Flickr

    An online photo management and sharing platform.

  • Wikimedia Commons

    An online repository with more than 57 million freely usable images, sounds, and other media files.




    Statistics & Data Sources data-source

    Statistics and data can help us to strengthen our justifications and discussions in our assignment.

  • Google Dataset Search

    ​A search engine for dataset provides by Google that helps you to locate free online data.




    Writing Aids writing

    Writing efficiency can be improved with proper writing aids. In this section, we are going to introduce some tools that can improve your grammar and help you find appropriate phrases for your assignment.

  • Grammarly

    A free writing assistant to check your English text for grammar, spelling, and other errors.

  • Linggle

    An English grammar and linguistic search engine which helps you check word choice, usage and collocations.

  • Academic Phrasebank

    ​An online platform created by The University of Manchester with an extensive collection of phrases for academic writing.


    Not sure what's ​the best way to phrase a sentence using a particular word? This online English collocations dictionary will be able to help.




    Research Data Tools increase

    Collecting, managing and analyzing data are necessary for many assignments. In this section, we would like to introduce helpful tools for data collection, cleaning, visualization, and analysis.

    Data Collection
  • Google Formsguide-book[ User Guide ]

    Here's a free tool for online surveys in the event you are using this method to collect responses and data for your assignment.

    Data Cleaning
  • OpenRefineguide-book[ User Guide ]

    A powerful tool for messy data cleaning and data transformation, which helps you to convert data format or data structure in order to facilitate further data analysis.

    Data Visualization
  • Tableau Publicguide-book[ User Guide ]

    A free software that allows you to create interactive data visualization without programming knowledge.

  • Scimago Graphicaguide-book[ User Guide ]

    A free data visualization tool that provides an easy way to explore, communicate, and make sense of data without using any coding.

  • The Data Visualisation Catalogue

    A handy guide and library of different data visualization techniques, tools, and resources to learn how to use different forms of data visualization.

    Data Analysis
  • Voyant Toolsguide-book[ User Guide ]

    An open-source online tool allows you to "see through your text" by conducting different types of analysis on a body of text.

  • Pythonguide-book[ User Guide ]

    A multipurpose language that has been widely used in data processing and analysis by data scientists.

  • Rguide-book[ User Guide ]

    A programming language that can help us to conduct statistical analysis and data visualization.

  • Format Your Paper

    APA Style is more than citations. Learn to format your paper.

    The formatting rules and guidelines for APA Style are designed for comprehensive research papers. Read your assignment instructions and adapt the APA Style rules as needed. This page gives an overview of what your paper will look like when using APA Style and how to set up a Word document.

  • APA 7 Style and Grammar Guidelines - The American Psychological Association (2023)
  • Picture102-300x3

    Basic Elements of APA 7 Style

    • Title page (also known as a cover page).
    • Font options:
    • - sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode
      - serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX)

    • Double-spaced -The entire document including the title page and reference list.
    • References page always starts on a new page.
    • Page numbers - The title page is your first page. The number one (1) should be located in the upper right-hand corner of the page.
    • Margins - APA guidelines specify: one-inch margins at the top, bottom, right and left of every page. Default margins in Word are one inch.
    • Citations and reference list - Include both in-text citations and a reference list.

    For more information check out the APA 7 webpage:



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